# Maze Image Solver

Here I'm posting a maze generation and resolve class written in python. and Naser, M. Try to ﬁnd all ten!. image capture, binarization, ﬁltering, maze detection, solving, and overlaying the solution. The maze is not animated and is completely static, however your eyes may think otherwise. By Jennifer Tsang. Materials: printer, paper, something to print with; Instructions: Click on the link of your choice (below) to print the template. MazeSolver solves mazes, which are automatically read and interpreted from jpg images. The implementation of the data structure aims to be memory efficient. This is important if you want to design straight-line labyrinths. This allows for instant maze platform movements as per the android phone. Python / Miscellaneous This is a simple maze generator & solver written in Python. So, our dear "Rex, t. They can optionally specify a solution path, which provides a rough guide for laying out the maze's actual solution. As there are several exits this maze breaks into several connected components. Mazes illustrated daily, but perhaps not posted as often. Furthermore, as with the skeleton, we need to add a little border around the image:. Maze Solver using OpenCV and C++ Ahmed Ramzy. Consider the maze to be a black and white image, with black pixels representing walls, and white pixels representing a path. What to Do. In this paper, to solve maze more quickly, we propose a fast and shorter path finding method based on the image processing techniques and graph theory. The winners for Best Corn Maze are in! University’s “150 Years of Giant Leaps” in 2019 with images of Neil Armstrong and Amelia Earhart. See more ideas about Maze, Maze puzzles and Printable mazes. This project aims at finding the solution of perfect mazes which is defined as a maze which has only one path from any point in the maze to any other point. Ben intentó resolver el laberinto en el papel mientras esperaba su cita. We need to get rid of the 4 that is added, so we’ll need to subtract 4 from both sides. I wonder how someone else would do it? I started to read the article and the rules didn't make any sense. Function Reference Formulas Charts Conditional Formatting Excel Tables Pivot Tables VBA Knowledge Base Macros User Defined Functions Videos Advanced Excel Course. Solutions for the Rubik's Cube and many other mechanical puzzles. (2016) Pathfinding in Strategy Games and Maze Solving Using A* Search. Maze solving You are encouraged to solve this task according to the task description, using any language you may know. Given such a maze, we want to find a path from entry to the exit. is that you have a whole. Maze Game Escape Maze Solve Puzzle Maze Puzzle Escape Solve. Robot solving simple maze using computer vision on Raspberry Pi the bottom portion of the camera image in five square boxed and detecting the presence of the line in each box using color. It is divided into worlds and some of them are: Planet Earth, Under The Sea, Inventions, Seasons, Circus, Transports and […]. Check out our Free Printable Mazes today and get to customizing!. 480 printable mazes that you can download and print for free. Using a watershed transform to solve a maze—that is, to find a path between the entry and exit points 1 —is a straightforward process, but it involves several. If the maze is simply connected, that is, all its walls are connected together or to the maze's outer boundary, then by keeping one hand in contact with one wall of the maze the solver is guaranteed not to get lost and will reach a different exit if there is one; otherwise, the algorithm will return to the entrance having traversed every. Read honest and unbiased product reviews from our users. Maze-Solver képes megnyitni az alább felsorolt fájltípusokat. Vector graphics of a maze. Let's say you're working with the equation x/5 + 7 = -3. What it is doing is line detection. Our goal is to create engaging, affordable, and powerful solutions that immerse students in STEM through the excitement of building and programming educational robotics kits. Vannoy II April 2009 [email protected] Here in this video you will find an explanation of how you can make a Maze Solver using OpenCV. Solve Jigsaw Problem. Thinking of it another way… the Right-Hand Rule is boring if you are solving a maze for fun. Nov 7, 2018- Explore mollieanna62's board "MAZE", followed by 477 people on Pinterest. Application to Maze Solving. The Beginner's Guide is an Environmental Narrative Game published in 2015 by David Wreden, creator of The Stanley Parable. This post describes how to solve mazes using 2 algorithms implemented in Python: a simple recursive algorithm and the A* search algorithm. Read honest and unbiased product reviews from our users. While we talk concerning Two-Step Equation Maze Worksheet, we already collected various related images to inform you more. Consider the maze to be a black and white image, with black pixels representing walls, and white pixels representing a path. Given a MxN matrix where each element can either be 0 or 1. Puzzle Heart Love. The selection ranges from simple mazes for young children, to hard mazes for more accomplished problem-solvers, to difficult mazes for truly brave puzzle solvers. The input images are shown in Figure. No need to register, buy now!. ) Learning Objectives. The boundary line is the wall. The maze winds through the design with entrances marked by arrows, as seen in the upper left corner, and exits, also marked by arrows, with a location based in the bottom right corner of the image. The maze worksheets are printable and the maze changes each time you visit. Maze can be of any type. The image is cleaned before the search (ie. They will help preschoolers develop a critical thinking as well as problem solving skills. Regular readers of the Wolfram Blog will have seen that the item that I wrote on solving mazes using morphological image processing was thoroughly beaten by the much smarter and better read, Daniel Lichtblau from our Scientific Information Group in his post "Navigating the Blenheim Maze". These are the python files associated with the computerphile video on maze solving. Download from iStock by Getty Images. A maze is a path or collection of paths, typically from an entrance to a goal. Click to learn about The Maze, a challenging team-building exercise that promotes collaboration & develops communication skills. Check out our Free Printable Mazes today and get to customizing!. The algorithm of choice for mapping the maze and solving for the shortest distance to the end was the Flood Fill algorithm. Snowflake Maze How fast can you trace and solve the mazes? Images (c) Hidsey's Clipart & Kari Bolt www. Or, download a printable maze book (with 250 mazes in each book!) for just $9. Give it a go! There are some test images you can choose from. Maze Game Deluxe is a fun arcade game in which you have to solve each puzzle, grab the golden coins and reach the Exit sign to advance to the next level. The app would be able to analyze an image of a general maze and use image processing algorithms to binarize the image into a black-white rep-. So, basically, painting a region and solving a maze is the same thing, from this point of. Learn more about maze solving, image recognition, algorithm, labyrinth MATLAB, Image Processing Toolbox. Holds 1 to 5 gift cards; 3" x 4-1/2". We need to find the shortest path between a given source cell to a destination cell. Maze Solver Robot, Using Artificial Intelligence With Arduino: This Instructable was developed upon my last project: Line Follower Robot - PID Control - Android Setup. We have a vast choice of different mazes, from simple block grids for young children to intricate hand-drawn mazes for older children. Advanced Line Following Robot of Maze Solving. Introduction This project aims at finding the solution of perfect mazes which is defined as a maze which has only one path from any point in the maze to any other point. You can't solve the Ashtray Maze until you get an item from Ahti, Control's strange "janitor. The human designer partitions the image manually into regions, assigns a small set of style parameters to each region, and sketches a rough solution path. We give the maze floors a grey value of 1, so that the distance travelled through the maze is equal to the path length, and the maze walls a value of 10 6, larger than any path you could possibly draw in such a small image. He has commanded you to figure out the relationship between maze dimensions and difficulty. As I was walking around it on the weekend, I remembered a map solving example by Peter Overmann using new image processing features in an upcoming version of Mathematica. Maze Game Escape Maze Solve Puzzle Maze Puzzle Escape Solve. Has a Puzzle of the Month page. Trial software is usually a program that you can download and use for a certain period of time. Download this Hedge Maze Problem Solving photo now. 19, 2015, 11:24 AM The letter F. To solve the word search, enter the size of the puzzle (width and height), then enter every letter in each row. All puzzles ©2005-2019 KrazyDad. Concept of problem solving Solution or problem solving. So why am I following suit by selecting it as a Pick of the Week? Several reasons. , the algorithm Paint/Photoshop/Any other graphics tool uses to paint or find regions) can be done. Brett's Pick this week is maze_solution, by Image Analyst. From a rat's perspective, the maze's solution is not obvious at all! To experience what a maze might be like for a rat, try this project. Thousands of new, high-quality pictures added every day. Feel free to reproduce the puzzles for personal, church, school or institutional use. '' --Erno Rubik The Rubiks Cube is a cube consisting of 6 sides with 9 individual pieces on each. Whenever inside the maze, the bottom right corner of the screen displays the current Maze's "reward potential", which starts at 100% and slowly drains away. Guide your children to look for the correct path to go out of the maze by carefully scanning the numerous paths on the maze. A Mathematical Approach To Solving Rubik's Cube by Raymond Tran, UBC Math308 – Fall 2005 History: ''We turn the Cube and it twists us. The Maze Design The Maze Cam The Maze Diary The Maze Maker FPS Images Make Your Own Mazes. To prevent this, try to thing ahead and consider what will happen several moves in the future each time you slide a tile. The system uses novel extensions to well-known maze construction algorithms to build mazes that approximate the tone of the source image, express the desired style in each region, and conform to the user's solution path. The record time for solving the maze stands at seven minutes, about an eighth of the time the average visitor takes to complete the challenge. Find and Download tons of free maze pictures, HD background images and royalty free stock photos, free for commercial use. Numerous cybernetic machines, usually names after animals were being constructed to study phenomena of artificial intelligence. This is how you could code it, in a rather lame dialect of pseudocode:. The visualization compares solving the SAT problem with finding an exit in a maze by an agent. The article presents a simple technique to find the shortest path between two points in a 2D Maze. Before we start. Robot Maze In this game, you only see a lighted section of the board. "Wrap" your gift card in a brain-teasing challenge! Just place the card in the clear plastic puzzle maze, secure lock and door, and watch the fun as the recipient works the maze to solve the puzzle and retrieve the gift. Ask Question How they transfer the instruction with help of mapped image? $\endgroup$ – Karthik Oct 20 '15 at 16:00. Nancy Pelosi took Trump's tweet about her "meltdown" and made it her Twitter cover photo. Puzzlemaker uses PNG image files which are only viewable in Netscape and Internet Explorer browsers version 4. The main objective when using one is to recreate it's original position, a solid color for each. The restoration, the first one when you enter from the front (cant remember witch one it is) and the conjuration from bellow the maze (though this one is probably because i cant open the other two at top). And it’s usually more efficient as well. Things like the number of sensors, the distances between them, and the distances from the sensors to the wheels centers may become really important in the maze solving activity. There are currently 1 filename extension(s) associated with the Maze-Solver application in our database. maze solver verilog Search and download maze solver verilog open source project / source codes from CodeForge. We found 1 possible solution on our database matching the query Maze explorer. Make a mistake, and you will be led in the wrong direction. Holds 1 to 5 gift cards; 3" x 4-1/2". I want to program a maze solver. They were asked to find their way from a constant entrance to a constant exit in fourteen diverse mazes. Use the maze-solver-python (GitHub): This is a python-based solver which uses BFS to find the shortest path. [C#] Maze Solver Basicly, what I've done is implemented the Breadth-first Search (BFS) algorithm along with a image-analyser to solve a given maze. What is the best way to represent and solve a maze given an image? Given an JPEG image (as seen above), what's the best way to read it in, parse it into some data structure and solve the maze?. Each CAD and any associated text, image or data is in no way sponsored by or affiliated with any company, organization or. Research by the U. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. Recursive Maze Solver - posted in Classes and Code Snippets: A simple maze solver using recursive functions. We need to find the shortest path between a given source cell to a destination cell. Maze Game is one of the Interactivate assessment explorers. Now that we have a solid understanding of the basic Q Learning algorithm, let's take a look at how we can use it to solve a simple problem - a maze. GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets. Blockly Games : Maze. Play Breakout Games, the #1 rated Escape Room, for an unforgetable and immersive 5-star experience. Businessman solving a maze. SOLVE THE MAZE! FIND THE HIDDEN PICTURES! Hidden in the walls of the labyrinth are ten things you might see in Canada. So, our dear "Rex, t. Download Maze stock photos. I would think approaching it in this manner might give a faster solution to a random maze, rather than what would essentially be a "blind maze runner" with "bump sensors". I'm working on a maze solving program. How to insert images into word document table. Maze solving using multiple algorithms is one of the important problems in the last years, maze solving problem is to determine the path of a mobile robot from its source position to a destination. The two fields that our project incorporates the most are image processing and graph theory. Find a path from one corner to another, backtracking should be allowed. Maze Writer is a 26 week handwriting program that is filled with FUN activities and mazes…. WORD SCRAMBLES. No description. The image is cleaned before the search (ie. The maze winds through the design with entrances marked by arrows, as seen in the upper left corner, and exits, also marked by arrows, with a location based in the bottom right corner of the image. Thereby a traveller (represented by one piece) moves in an interconnected weaving path (mostly represented by another piece). The maze is solved for every location the ball can be in on the maze. Jy'Juan has 2 jobs listed on their profile. Affordable and search from millions of royalty free images, photos and vectors. BFS Maze Solver in Python. Two white pixels are special, one being the entry to the maze and another exit. Manson's ability to convey shadow and light using this method is amazing. This allows for instant maze platform movements as per the android phone. With the Giant's Stride put up in 1915 and. This seemed like the perfect opportunity to show that I could actually do something useful on the computer (in his eyes), so I decided to put together a maze generator. Los Angeles. Plastic; instructions included (in case recipient gives up). Here are some FREE Maze Activities to use with your unit on solving equations. It can be applied to many images where traditional techniques fall short—for example, images where objects are densely packed, such as cells in a tissue sample. com Armon Saied [email protected] This Marble Maze tutorial shows how to use image processing and custom path planning to solve the maze by rolling a white marble from any starting point to a defined end point within the maze. With many children to entertain the Fox family planted an extensive maze and also installed a rotating rope swing. Maze catagories and portal for many mazes. The proposed maze-solving algorithm works better and has short searching time and low spacecomplexity, and it is significant for robot’s finding path in some areas like maze-solving. Maze-Solver is capable of opening the file types listed below. The maze stretches over three acres and includes nearly two and one-half miles of paths crafted from 14,000 colorful Hawaiian plants. Last updated: Fri Oct 20 12:50:46 EDT 2017. The aim of this maze is to find a route that totals to 100. A maze is a complex, branching (multicursal) puzzle that includes choices of path and direction, while a labyrinth is unicursal, i. These maze makers let you create your own maze. Materials: printer, paper, something to print with; Instructions: Click on the link of your choice (below) to print the template. Maze-solving involves Control Engineering and Artificial Intelligence. The main objective when using one is to recreate it's original position, a solid color for each. Find a path from one corner to another, backtracking should be allowed. Inverted Maze-a-Pix Play new puzzles each week. The input images are shown in Figure. Solve Jigsaw Problem. Concept of problem solving Solution or problem solving. The key will often be hidden in the text somewhere. Even so, there are lots of ways to get the job done. One of the hardest parts of solving a sliding puzzle is preventing future moves from ruining previous slides. The maze winds through the design with entrances marked by arrows, as seen in the upper left corner, and exits, also marked by arrows, with a location based in the bottom right corner of the image. Python / Miscellaneous This is a simple maze generator & solver written in Python. It outputs a file called "output. On this page, you can find the list of file extensions associated with the Maze-Solver application. The approach to drawing mazes that is outlined here is a cell-based approach for drawing a simple maze. Download this free Maze stock photo now. Using a watershed transform to solve a maze—that is, to find a path between the entry and exit points 1 —is a straightforward process, but it involves several. Answer all of the problems correctly, and you find the correct path to the finish. Check out the updates page for recent posts. maze solver using stack or queue - posted in Java: I must create a maze solver using a queue then a Stack, our maze consists of four legael characters. Of-course first time it has to walk all the way and keep tracking obstacles it found. Ben tried to solve the maze in the paper while he waited for his appointment. Besides those nifty nonbasic lands appearing in the basic land slot in booster packs, Dragon's Maze will have 10 mythic rares, 35 rares, 40 uncommons, and 60 commons. Read honest and unbiased product reviews from our users. This program was especially designed for children who struggle or have little interest in other homeschool handwriting programs. This Solve The Tricky Maze is a free image for you to print out. Breadth First Algorithm For Maze Solving Problem I. Grubiks team is proud to present the best online Rubik’s Cube Solver! Used my millions around the world - this rubik’s cube solving website will show you how to solve any valid scramble with an easy to follow step-by-step solution. The entire maze is captured to determine the possible paths and using Direction Envelope Algorithm for finding the best route. I did try to reload the maze several times but its still the same, 3 out of 5 sigils dont react to any of my spells. Without losing anymore time here is the answer for the above mentioned crossword clue. Image Processing A substantial part of this project involves analyzing and manipulating images. Difficult maze puzzle. Based Approach to Solving Digital Maze Images Preeti Chaudhary, Girish Garg CSE AITM College Abstract- Our research is based on the fungus infestation and survival which is a cellular automata based approach to solving traditional digital maze image. A rat has to find a path from source to destination. Something called the fast Fourier transform is running on your cell phone right now. Maze - Play it now at CoolmathGames. The idea is simply to move around the maze with the arrow keys. Difficult maze puzzle. Maze puzzle illustration vector. It is written as a game, consisting of classes which can read mazes from STDIN or a file. Challenge Yourself! Learn new things, play games. I thought, cool, a maze solver. This allows for instant maze platform movements as per the android phone. The steps are summarized in the block diagram in ﬁgure 1. Pentagon releases first images from raid that killed ISIS leader. If the path tends to hug the left, the Solver won't have much to explore. A new Swansea University study has revealed how common shore crabs can navigate their way around a complex maze and can even remember the route in order to find. Holds 1 to 5 gift cards; 3" x 4-1/2". The input images are shown in Figure. On this page, you can find the list of file extensions associated with the Maze-Solver application. A word search puzzle can be solved by browsing the whole grid, rown after row, letter after letter, and try to find words in the 4 direction (2 horizontal: from left to right or from right to left backward, 2 vertical: from top to bottom and from bottom to top) or even 8 directions with diagonals, in order to find words. This is important because outside the Glade is the Maze, a terrifying labyrinth of high walls covered in ivy that houses strange, lethal creatures known as Grievers. Your goal is to find the way through the maze and reach the looked door with a puzzle board on it. Move start and end points. A maze is a complex structure with a series of interconnecting pathways. A labyrinth is a right brain task. Maze Solver using OpenCV and C++ Ahmed Ramzy. Special thanks to the Maze Blog for this incredible work of maze art. I'm wanting to make sure the mouse can explore the maze and then solve it based on all the routes its found. ImageSolver is not a blind solver which could solve any image knowing nothing about it. Tech (CSE) SEM III Roll No. You can relax here, exploring over 15 different locations, each of which has an incomparable secret. The card also gives you the location and orientation of the green beam. If this doesn't work, save the image to your computer, and then click on it as a file, hopefully something will be revealed!. This maze design template can also be used for presentations on Maze solving algorithm. Solving Quadratics By Factoring Worksheet Solve Quadratic Equations by peting the Square Worksheets from Solving Quadratics By Factoring Worksheet , source: thoughtco. Here is a list of best free maze maker software for windows. Abstract: The most important task for maze solving robots is the fast and reliable finding of its shortest path from its initial point to its final destination point. This allows for instant maze platform movements as per the android phone. It provides a a random maze generator game, which can generate mazes of any dimension and. So, basically, painting a region and solving a maze is the same thing, from this point of. Really clear math lessons (pre-algebra, algebra, precalculus), cool math games, online graphing calculators, geometry art, fractals, polyhedra, parents and teachers areas too. This is a simple maze generator & solver written in Python. For Maze and Country CLICK image to view maze LARGER Try to solve the maze in as little time as possible, and by starting at the begining and going all the. In particular, the proposed method is more effective when the maze image size is large. Update: New and improved version. They will help preschoolers develop a critical thinking as well as problem solving skills. It is a powerful tool for solving segmentation problems in densely packed objects and other difficult images, such as an image of biological tissue or a container full of objects. Research by the U. I wanted to learn python and generating and solving mazes is a good exercise to start with. Enter Algebra Problems And Get Answers Printable Maze Kids School Worksheets Free Digit Addition Short For First Grade Math Equations Worksheet Adding 3rd Primary Writing. ID #27230705. Affordable and search from millions of royalty free images, photos and vectors. Maze solving You are encouraged to solve this task according to the task description, using any language you may know. AppAdvice does not own this application and only provides images and links contained in the iTunes Search API, to help our. and Naser, M. April Walloga. Try Compound Words Worksheets to practice more More Online Kids Games. GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets. Construct the robot as shown in the image. Maze-Solver is capable of opening the file types listed below. Of-course first time it has to walk all the way and keep tracking obstacles it found. Thousands of new, high-quality pictures added every day. This code takes an image containing a 2-color maze as input and solves the maze and produces an image of the solution or an animated GIF. The vision and maze solving code for this example has been written by my 14 years old son. ImageSolver is not a blind solver which could solve any image knowing nothing about it. office, where I work, lies Blenheim Palace, which has a rather nice hedge maze. You might want to use a pencil lightly to solve the maze so you can erase your tracks if you get stuck. Another strategy is to use a salient cue. Craft Templates: Close template window when done printing to return to this screen. as well as handwriting practice for the entire alphabet. The runner that makes your heart beat faster┌( ಠ_ಠ)┘┌( ಠ_ಠ)┘┌( ಠ_ಠ)┘ Adventure. The printable word scrambles for kids are 4 per page and each page is based on a theme. The demonstration uses javascript in your browser to let you draw out some simple mazes and compare different methods of solving those mazes. As input it takes a jpg image and the coordinates of the beginning and end of the maze. click mazes - interactive puzzles and mazes to play on-line for free click mazes - interactive puzzles and mazes These are the homepages of Andrea Gilbert, Bill Mitchell and Mildew the Cat (deceased). Find path from entry to exit. What i have done:- read the maze from a txt file- display it on a JPanel object- created an enum (look below)- class MyStack and MyQueue- Implements agenda which specifies 5 methods public enum Square { start(o), openSpace(. According to our registry, Maze-Solver is capable of opening the files listed below. IF IMAGE IS CLICKABLE, then a blog post exists for it. To prevent this, try to thing ahead and consider what will happen several moves in the future each time you slide a tile. This year’s. Simply select any of our maze games categories, then select a maze link and start playing by holding down your mouse button to draw. It outputs a file called "output. In this paper, to solve maze more quickly, we propose a fast and shorter path finding method based on the image processing techniques and graph theory. Mazes look pretty simple to us. The script works for only perfect mazes, i. Manson's ability to convey shadow and light using this method is amazing. Maze Solving (for real) and Code Tracing. COUNTIF function INDEX function IF function SUM function SUMIFS function SUMPRODUCT function VLOOKUP function. If there is a trial version of Maze-Solver, it should be available on their official website. , will pave the way for sequencing other economically important crops. Children will enjoy maze games for kids like Bunny Holes, where the object is to guide the cute bunny around the maze and help him get to the hole. 6 inches wide, 3. Here you can specify grid number, grid complexity, grid shape, grid size, grid thickness, height, width, background color, entry path, exit path, solution path color, difficulty level, etc. The microcontroller constantly checks the maze alignment and compares it with the phone alignment in order to match it at every moment. 0 or higher. Be brilliant on a budget with Storyblocks. In this maze, the path from the entrance to the exit is hidden by math problems. Construct the robot as shown in the image. Find man in maze stock images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos, illustrations and vectors in the Shutterstock collection. The algorithm of choice for mapping the maze and solving for the shortest distance to the end was the Flood Fill algorithm. Rubik's Cube Sticker Mods And Picture Cubes. Find path from entry to exit. This holds true for most mazes. Maze Solver 19 Nov 2015 Introduction. This is how you could code it, in a rather lame dialect of pseudocode:. Using a good algorithm can achieve the high efficiency of finding the shortest path. So why am I following suit by selecting it as a Pick of the Week? Several reasons. According to our registry, Maze-Solver is capable of opening the files listed below. I wonder how someone else would do it? I started to read the article and the rules didn't make any sense. Puzzle Heart Love. The interaction between maze complexity and colony size is intriguing: larger colonies took longer to solve the maze and reach the food, but only in complex mazes. Once they get the correct way, it will lead them to find the way out. One such strategy is to take note of environmental cues [such as the position of the stars at night]. ASSIGNMENT 1 - MAZE SOLVER In this assignment, you are asked to write a program that will find a path through a maze. If there is a trial version of Maze-Solver, it should be available on their official website. Blockly Games : Maze. If the path tends to hug the left, the Solver won't have much to explore. There are currently 1 filename extension(s) associated with the Maze-Solver application in our database. Find and Download tons of free maze pictures, HD background images and royalty free stock photos, free for commercial use. A Mathematical Approach To Solving Rubik's Cube by Raymond Tran, UBC Math308 – Fall 2005 History: ''We turn the Cube and it twists us. Businesswoman Solving Maze Problem. With a maze many choices must be made and an active mind is needed to solve the problem of finding the center. The maze images need to fulfill some conditions:. There’s nothing in the cave or tunnel.